Characterization of gene mutations and copy number changes in acute myeloid leukemia using a rapid target enrichment protocol
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AuthorBolli, Nicolo; Manes, Nicla; McKerrel, Thomas; Jianxiang, Chi; Park, Naomi; Gundem, Gunes; Quail, Michael A; Sathiaseelan, Vijitha; Herman, Bram; Crawley, Charles; Craig, Jenny I; Conte, Natalie; Grove, Carolyn; Papaemmanuil, Elli; Campbell, Peter J; Varela Egocheaga, Ignacio; Costeas, Paul; Vassiliou, George S
Prognostic stratification is critical for making therapeutic decisions and maximizing survival of patients with acute myeloid leukemia. Advances in the genomics of acute myeloid leukemia have identified several recurrent gene mutations whose prognostic impact is being deciphered. We used HaloPlex target enrichment and Illumina-based next generation sequencing to study 24 recurrently mutated genes in 42 samples of acute myeloid leukemia with a normal karyotype. Read depth varied between and within genes for the same sample, but was predictable and highly consistent across samples. Consequently, we were able to detect copy number changes, such as an interstitial deletion of BCOR, three MLL partial tandem duplications, and a novel KRAS amplification. With regards to coding mutations, we identified likely oncogenic variants in 41 of 42 samples. NPM1 mutations were the most frequent, followed by FLT3, DNMT3A and TET2. NPM1 and FLT3 indels were reported with good efficiency. We also showed that DNMT3A mutations can persist post-chemotherapy and in 2 cases studied at diagnosis and relapse, we were able to delineate the dynamics of tumor evolution and give insights into order of acquisition of variants. HaloPlex is a quick and reliable target enrichment method that can aid diagnosis and prognostic stratification of acute myeloid leukemia patients.