Thermodynamic temperatures of high-temperature fixed points: uncertainties due to temperature drop and emissivity
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AuthorCastro Alonso, Pablo Bernardo; Machin, Graham; Bloembergen, Pieter; Lowe, Dave; Whittam, Aaron
This study forms part of the European Metrology Research Programme project implementing the New Kelvin to assign thermodynamic temperatures to a selected set of high-temperature fixed points (HTFPs), Cu, Co–C, Pt–C, and Re–C. A realistic thermal model of these HTFPs, developed in finite volume software ANSYS FLUENT, was constructed to quantify the uncertainty associated with the temperature drop across the back wall of the cell. In addition, the widely applied software package, STEEP3 was used to investigate the influence of cell emissivity. The temperature drop, ΔT, relates to the temperature difference due to the net loss of heat from the aperture of the cavity between the back wall of the cavity, viewed by the thermometer, defining the radiance temperature, and the solid–liquid interface of the alloy, defining the transition temperature of the HTFP. The actual value of ΔT can be used either as a correction (with associated uncertainty) to thermodynamic temperature evaluations of HTFPs, or as an uncertainty contribution to the overall estimated uncertainty. In addition, the effect of a range of furnace temperature profiles on the temperature drop was calculated and found to be negligible for Cu, Co–C, and Pt–C and small only for Re–C. The effective isothermal emissivity (εeff) is calculated over the wavelength range from 450 nm to 850 nm for different assumed values of surface emissivity. Even when furnace temperature profiles are taken into account, the estimated emissivities change only slightly from the effective isothermal emissivity of the bare cell. These emissivity calculations are used to estimate the uncertainty in the temperature assignment due to the uncertainty in the emissivity of the blackbody.
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