Source contribution to the bulk atmospheric deposition of minor and trace elements in a Northern Spanish coastal urban area
EstadísticasView Usage Statistics
Full recordShow full item record
AuthorFernández Olmo, Ignacio; Puente García, Mariano; Montecalvo, Lucía; Irabien Gulías, José Ángel
Mo, Ni, Pb, Ti, V and Zn was investigated in Santander, a Northern Spanish coastal city. Bulk deposition samples were collected monthly for three years using a bottle/funnel device. Taking into account that heavy metals are bioavailable only in their soluble forms, water-soluble and water-insoluble fractions were evaluated separately for element concentration. The fluxes of the studied elements in the bulk deposition exhibited the following order: Zn>Mn>>Cu>Cr>Pb>V>Ni>>As>Mo>Cd. The fluxes of Zn and Mn were more than 10 times higher than those of the other elements, withmaximumvalues of 554.5 and 334.1 µg m-2 day-1, respectively. Low solubilities (below 22%) were found for Cr, Ti and Pb, whereas the highest solubility was found for Zn (78%). With the exception of Cu, all of the studied metals in the water-soluble fraction of the atmospheric deposition showed seasonal dependence, due to the seasonal variability of precipitation. The enrichment factors (EFs) of Cu, Cd and Zn were higher than 100, indicating a clear anthropogenic origin. The EF of Mn (50) was below 100, but an exclusively industrial origin is suggested. Positive Matrix Factorisation (PMF) was used for the source apportionment of the studiedminor and trace elements in the soluble fraction. Four factors were identified from PMF, and their chemical profiles were compared with those calculated from known sources that were previously identified in Santander Bay: two industrial sources, the first of which was characterised by Zn and Mn, which contributes 62.5% of the total deposition flux of the studied elements; a traffic source; and a maritime source. Zinc and Mn are considered to be the most characteristic pollutants of the studied area.