Analysis of maximally improper signaling schemes for underlay cognitive radio networks
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In this paper, the impact of improper Gaussian signaling is studied for an underlay cognitive radio (CR) scenario comprised of a primary user (PU), which has a rate constraint, and a secondary user (SU), both single-antenna. We first derive expressions for the achievable rate of the SU when it transmits proper and maximally improper Gaussian signals (assuming that the SU is solely limited by the CR constraint). These expressions depend on the channel gains to and from the SU through a single variable. Thereby, we observe that improper signaling is beneficial whenever the SU rate is below a threshold, which depends on the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and rate requirement of the PU. Furthermore, we provide bounds on the achievable gain that also depend only on the PU parameters. Then, the achievable rate is studied from a statistical viewpoint by deriving its cumulative distribution function considering a constant received SNR at the PU. In addition, we specialize this expression for the Z interference channel, for which the expected achievable rate is also derived. Numerical examples illustrate our claims and show that the SU may significantly benefit from using improper signaling.