Non-CO2 generating energy shares in the world : cross-country differences and polarization.
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The aim of this paper is to examine the spatial distribution of non-CO2 generating energy sources in the world for the period 1990–2009, paying special attention to the evolution of cross-country disparities. To this end, after carrying out a classical convergence analysis, a more thorough investigation of the entire distribution is presented by examining its external shape, the intra-distribution dynamics and the long-run equilibrium distribution. This analysis reveals the existence of a weak, rather insignificant, convergence process and that large crosscountry differences are likely to persist in the long-run. Next, as polarization indicators are a proper way of appraising potential conflict in international environmental negotiations, we test whether, or not, the distribution dynamics concurs with the presence of polarization. Our results indicate that two poles can be clearly differentiated, one with high and other with low non-CO2 generating energy shares. In view of these findings, and to ensure a fair transition to a sustainable energy system, the paper calls for the development of an ambitious clean energy agenda, especially in countries with low non-CO2 generating energy shares.
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