La Guerra Fría cultural: soft power, propaganda y diplomacia pública en un mundo enfrentado
The cultural Cold War: soft power, propaganda and public diplomacy in a confronted world
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AuthorRodríguez Agudo, Luis
ABSTRACT: The Cold War, as well as a diplomatic and ideological confrontation, was also extended to informational and cultural aspects. During the presidencies of Truman (1945-1953) and, especially, Eisenhower (1953-1961), cultural diffusion campaigns were launched by The United States in order to strengthen its leadership via various mechanisms: the media, the film industry, libraries, scientific publications, educational exchange programs and the financing of area studies and universities, all of them with the support of American civil organizations and foundations. In this ideological battle, intellectuals were used in order to prevent the diffusion of the rival principles, becoming, many of them, an instrument for the US secret services. In addition, innovations in the use of mass media were produced in these tasks, like the use of marketing techniques and the selection of targets based on interests. The state of the question in this matter and its historiographical treatment will be analyzed, as well as its origins. The vision of public diplomacy by the United States and the different types and peculiarities of the cultural propaganda will also be determined. An analysis of the different geographical areas in which it took place and the different strategies followed, according to the different regions, will also take place before moving to a section dedicated, due to its importance, to the Congress for Cultural Freedom. Finally, as an epilogue, the results and the conclusions in this topic will be analyzed.