Forces induced on a vertical breakwater by incident oblique waves
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AuthorLópez Lara, Javier; Higuera Caubilla, Pablo; Maza Fernández, María Emilia; Jesús Peñil, Manuel del; Losada Rodríguez, Íñigo; Barajas Ojeda, Gabriel
Over the last years Navier-Stokes numerical models have been developed to accurately simulate wave interaction with all kinds of coastal structures, focusing on both functionality and stability of coastal structures. Although several models have been used to simulate wave interaction with coastal structures in two dimensions (2DV) there are a vast number of three-dimensional effects that need to be investigated in order to improve the design. In this paper a new model called IH-FOAM has been applied to study a vertical breakwater at prototype scale. As a first attempt of validation, the model has been used to simulate a regular wave train generated with a relative angle with the breakwater inducing three-dimensional wave patterns not only seaward the structure due to reflection but also generating an overtopping discharge variation along the breakwater trunk. Pressure laws and overtopping discharge at three different cross-sections along the structure have been studied. The pressure laws have been compared with classical Goda’s formulation. Although, the numerical model predictions are in accordance with Goda’s calculations, a clear three-dimensional variability of wave-induced pressure has been observed. Moreover, an additional study has been performed calculating pressure laws on the side-wall at the breakwater head. Large three-dimensional effects are detected from the simulations due to the flow separation at that area. Overtopping model predictions have been compared with Overtopping Manual calculations showing very close values along the trunk. However, lower overtopping discharge values are observed at the breakwater head. This paper is a preliminary work to show the range of applicability of a three-dimensional Navier-Stokes model to study wave interaction with a vertical breakwater under the action of an oblique wave train.
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