Blind breast tissue diagnosis using independent component analysis of localized backscattering response
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AuthorEguizabal Aguado, Alma; Laughney, Ashley M.; García Allende, Pilar Beatriz; Krishnaswamy, Venkataramanan; Wells, Wendy A.; Paulsen, Keith D.; Brian William, Pogue; López Higuera, José Miguel; Conde Portilla, Olga María
A blind separation technique based on Independent Component Analysis (ICA) is proposed for breast tumor delineation and pathologic diagnosis. Tissue morphology is determined by fitting local measures of tissue reflectance to a Mie theory approximation, parameterizing the scattering power, scattering amplitude and average scattering irradiance. ICA is applied on the scattering parameters by spatial analysis using the Fast ICA method to extract more determinant features for an accurate diagnostic. Neither training, nor comparisons with reference parameters are required. Tissue diagnosis is provided directly following ICA application to the scattering parameter images. Surgically resected breast tissues were imaged and identified by a pathologist. Three different tissue pathologies were identified in 29 samples and classified as not-malignant, malignant and adipose. Scatter plot analysis of both ICA results and optical parameters where obtained. ICA subtle ameliorates those cases where optical parameter's scatter plots were not linearly separable. Furthermore, observing the mixing matrix of the ICA, it can be decided when the optical parameters themselves are diagnostically powerful. Moreover, contrast maps provided by ICA correlate with the pathologic diagnosis. The time response of the diagnostic strategy is therefore enhanced comparing with complex classifiers, enabling near real-time assessment of pathology during breast-conserving surgery.
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