The role of hydrogen-based power systems in the energy transition of the residential sector
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Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International
Journal of Chemical Technology and Biotechnology, 2022, 97(3), 561-574
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Residential and buildings sector
The unsustainable and continuous growth of anthropogenic emissions of greenhouse gases (GHG) has pushed governments, private companies and stakeholders to adopt measures and policies to fight against climate change. Within this framework, increasing the contribution of renewable energy sources (RES) to final consumed energy plays a key role in the planned energy transition. Regarding the residential sector in Europe, 92% of GHG emissions comes from 75% of the building stock that is over 25 years old, and highly inefficient. Thus, this sector must raise RES penetration from the current 36% to 77% by 2050 to comply with emissions targets. In this regard, the hybridization of hydrogen-based technologies and RES represents a reliable and versatile solution to facilitate decarbonization of the residential sector. This study provides an overview and analysis of standalone renewable hydrogen-based systems (RHS) focusing on the residential and buildings sector, as well as critical infrastructures like telecom stations, data servers, etc. For detailed evaluation of RHS, several pilot plants and real demonstration plants implemented worldwide are reviewed. To this end, a techno-economic assessment of relevant parameters like self-sufficiency ratio, levelized cost of energy and hydrogen roundtrip efficiency is provided. Moreover, the performance of the different configurations is evaluated by comparing the installed power of each component and their energy contribution to cover the load over a defined period of time. Challenges ahead are identified for the wider deployment of RHS in the residential and buildings sector.