Morphological, chemical and electrical characterization of a family of commercial nanofiltration polyvinyl alcohol coated polypiperazineamide membranes
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AuthorOtero Fernández, Alberto; Díaz Guridi, Pedro; Otero Hermida, José Antonio; Ibáñez Mendizábal, Raquel; Maroto, Valiente, Ángel; Palacio Martínez, Laura; Prádanos del Pico, Pedro; Carmona del Río, Francisco Javier; Hernández Giménez, Antonio
Three AFC membranes from PCI, of the thin film composite (TFC) nanofiltration type, have been characterized by using XPS, AFM, Contact angles, Zeta potential and permeation experiments. This plethora of complimentary methods portrays a deep and exhaustive description of these membranes that could be used to tune fabrication and modification of nanofiltration membranes to get better properties.
Morphological properties, including porosity, water permeability, fractal dimension, Wenzel parameter and roughness, correlate well with pore sizes. While functional characteristics as, for example wettability correlate well with the O/N ratio. Increasing O/N ratios should be interpreted as caused by increasing PVA coverages.
The charge on the membrane's surface is ordered in a different way for different pH but are quite similar anyway. The effect of charges on retention of 1:1, 1:2 and 2:1 salts (as tested with NaCl, Na2SO4 and CaCl2) increases with increasing O/N and wettability. Consequently, the trend of salt retentions can be explained in terms of the PVA coverage and the details of the amphoteric behavior of the three AFC membranes studied.