Deciphering the Molecular Basis of Melatonin Protective E ects on Breast Cells Treated with Doxorubicin: TWIST1 a Transcription Factor Involved in EMT and Metastasis, a Novel Target of Melatonin
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AuthorMenéndez-Menéndez, Javier; Hermida-Prado, Francisco; Granda-Díaz, Rocío; González Cabeza, Alicia Verónica; García-Pedrero, Juana María; Del-Río-Ibisate, Nagore; González-González, Alicia; Cos Corral, Samuel; Alonso González, Carolina; Martínez Campa, Carlos Manuel
Melatonin mitigates cancer initiation, progression and metastasis through inhibition of both the synthesis of estrogens and the transcriptional activity of the estradiol-ER (Estrogen receptor) complex in the estrogen-dependent breast cancer cell line MCF-7. Moreover, melatonin improves the sensitivity of MCF-7 to chemotherapeutic agents and protects against their side e ects. It has been described that melatonin potentiates the anti-proliferative e ects of doxorubicin; however, the molecular changes involving gene expression and the activation/inhibition of intracellular signaling pathways remain largely unknown. Here we found that melatonin enhanced the anti-proliferative e ect of doxorubicin in MCF-7 but not in MDA-MB-231 cells. Strikingly, doxorubicin treatment induced cell migration and invasion, and melatonin e ectively counteracted these e ects in MCF-7 but not in estrogen-independent MDA-MB-231 cells. Importantly, we describe for the first time the ability of melatonin to downregulate TWIST1 (Twist-related protein 1) in estrogen-dependent but not in estrogen-independent breast cancer cells. Combined with doxorubicin, melatonin inhibited the activation of p70S6K and modulated the expression of breast cancer, angiogenesis and clock genes. Moreover, melatonin regulates the levels of TWIST1-related microRNAs, such as miR-10a, miR-10b and miR-34a. Since TWIST1 plays a pivotal role in the epithelial to mesenchymal transition, acquisition of metastatic phenotype and angiogenesis, our results suggest that inhibition of TWIST1 by melatonin might be a crucial mechanism of overcoming resistance and improving the oncostatic potential of doxorubicin in estrogen-dependent breast cancer cells.