Critical analysis of the empirical tests of local hidden-variable theories
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AuthorSantos Corchero, Emilio
A local hidden-variable model is exhibited for the experiments by Aspect, Grangier, and Roger [Phys. Rev. Lett. 47, 460 (1981); 49, 91 (1982)] and Aspect, Dalibard, and Roger [Phys. Rev. Lett. 49, 1804 (1982)] measuring polarization correlation of optical-photon pairs. The model agrees with quantum-mechanical predictions for all measurable quantities even with ideal polarizers and detectors, and emphasizes the need of a high degree of directional correlation, besides the correlation of spin (or polarization or other quantities), in any test of locality. It is proved that homogeneous inequalities, involving only coincidence detection rates, cannot discriminate between quantum mechanics and local theories, which invalidates all previously used empirical tests. The role of supplementary assumptions, like the so-called no enhancement, for the derivation of Bell’s inequalities is discussed. Finally it is conjectured that quantum mechanics might be compatible with local realism, if we assume that not all self-adjoint operators represent observables and not all density operators represent states.
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