Langevin equation for the squeezing of light by means of a parametric oscillator
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We show that the Langevin equation for a nonlinear-optical system may be obtained directly from the Heisenberg equation of motion for the annihilation operators, provided a certain linearization procedure is valid. We apply the technique to the parametric oscillator used to generate squeezed light and compare our results to those obtained from Fokker-Planck-type equations. We argue that, only when the Wigner, as opposed to the P or Q, representation of quantum optics is used, do we get a correct description of the underlying stochastic process. We show how the linearization procedure may be carried out to describe the operation of the parametric oscillator both below threshold, where a squeezed vacuum state results, and above threshold, where we find a squeezed coherent state. In the region of the threshold a heuristic extension of the method leads to a possible description of the system by means of a nonlinear Langevin equation.
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