Parametric design of a class of full-band waveguide differential phase shifters
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Differential phase shifters are common circuits in communication systems where a fixed phase difference between two points within the circuit is required. Among the available technologies, waveguide phase shifters are preferred for applications such as antenna feed or beam-forming networks. Typical designs in the literature are devoted to specific phase delays such as 90° or 180°, but any phase shift might be required, and therefore a design procedure resulting in mechanically-related parameter fitting equations for any arbitrary phase difference would be advantageous. This paper presents a parametric design of full-band (40% relative bandwidth) waveguide differential phase shifters, providing polynomial equations for all design parameters in order to obtain arbitrary phase shifts between standard rectangular waveguides with equal physical lengths. The phase shift is achieved through the use of a multi-step ridge section together with a single width-step in the shift line. The proposed design procedure results in differential phase shifters with 25 dB of return loss and minimal physical length for any phase shift between 0° and 180°. To validate this parametric design process, two exemplary differential phase shifters with 30° and 140° phase shifts were measured, showing very good agreement with the simulated results.