Gender differences in variables associated with sleep quality in chronic tension type headache
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AuthorCigarán Méndez, Margarita; Fernández Muñoz, Juan J.; Navarro Pardo, Esperanza; Jiménez Antona, Carmen; Parás Bravo, Paula; Alburquerque Sendín, Francisco; Fernández de las Peñas, César
We aimed to evaluate gender differences in the relationships between headache features, sleep quality, anxiety, depressive symptoms, and burden of headache in 193 patients (73 percent women) with chronic tension type headache (CTTH). Sleep quality was assessed with the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index. Headache features were collected with a four-week diary. The Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale was used to assess anxiety/depressive symptoms. Headache Disability Inventory was used to evaluate the burden of headache. In men with CTTH, sleep quality was positive correlated with headache frequency (r = 0.310; p = .018), emotional (r = 0.518; p < .001) and physical (r = 0.468; p < .001) burden of headache, and depressive symptoms (r = 0.564; p < .001). In women, positive correlations were observed between sleep quality and headache intensity (r = 0.282; p < .001), headache frequency (r = 0.195; p = .021), emotional burden (r = 0.249; p = .004), and depressive symptoms (r = 0.382; p < .001). The results of stepwise regression analyses revealed that depressive symptoms and emotional burden of headache explained 37.2 percent of the variance in sleep quality in men (p < .001), whereas depressive symptoms and headache intensity explained 17.4 percent of the variance in sleep quality in women (p < .001) with CTTH. Gender differences associated with poor sleep should be considered for proper management of individuals with CTTH.
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