Curvature sensor based on In-fiber Mach-Zehnder interferometer inscribed with femtosecond laser
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AuthorPallarés Aldeiturriaga, David; Rodríguez Cobo, Luis; Quintela Incera, Antonio; López Higuera, José Miguel
In this paper, an In-fiber Mach-Zehnder interferometer inscribed by femtosecond laser for curvature sensing has been designed and manufactured. Its operating principle consists of a secondary waveguide inscription working as a sensing arm. This waveguide has been manufactured using asymmetric structures with an average refractive index change of 1.1 × 10-2 in its guiding section measured by refracted near-field profilometry. The overall arm/cladding index difference is higher than its core/cladding counterpart, which is a suggested condition for device operation following preliminary simulations. The manufactured Mach-Zehnder interferometer exhibits a linear response to bending radius that is also dependent on an established bending axis. Sensitivity has been measured up to 9.49 nm/m-1 for curvature ranges from 0 to 14 m-1. Simulation results using the beam propagation method and conformal mapping transformation to convert bending action into a tilt refractive index agree with experimental results for the same index parameters. Preliminary temperature test shows a remarkable cross sensitivity of 0.0024(3)m-1/-C up to 180 -C.