Association between recurrence of acute kidney injury and mortality in intensive care unit patients with severe sepsis
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AuthorRodrigo Calabia, Emilio; Suberviola, Borja; Santibáñez Margüello, Miguel; Belmar, Lara; Castellanos Ortega, Álvaro; Heras Vicario, María Milagros; Rodríguez Borregán, Juan Carlos; Martín de Francisco Hernández, Ángel Luis; Ronco, Claudio
Background: Acute kidney injury (AKI) occurs in more than half critically ill patients admitted in intensive care units (ICU) and increases the mortality risk. The main cause of AKI in ICU is sepsis. AKI severity and other related variables such as recurrence of AKI episodes may influence mortality risk. While AKI recurrence after hospital discharge has been recently related to an increased risk of mortality, little is known about the rate and consequences of AKI recurrence during the ICU stay. Our hypothesis is that AKI recurrence during ICU stay in septic patients may be associated to a higher mortality risk. Methods: We prospectively enrolled all (405) adult patients admitted to the ICU of our hospital with the diagnosis of severe sepsis/septic shock for a period of 30 months. Serum creatinine was measured daily. ?In-ICU AKI recurrence? was defined as a new spontaneous rise of ?0.3 mg/dl within 48 h from the lowest serum creatinine after the previous AKI episode. Results: Excluding 5 patients who suffered the AKI after the initial admission to ICU, 331 patients out of the 400 patients (82.8%) developed at least one AKI while they remained in the ICU. Among them, 79 (19.8%) developed ?2 AKI episodes. Excluding 69 patients without AKI, in-hospital (adjusted HR = 2.48, 95% CI 1.47?4.19), 90-day (adjusted HR = 2.54, 95% CI 1.55?4.16) and end of follow-up (adjusted HR = 1.97, 95% CI 1.36?2.84) mortality rates were significantly higher in patients with recurrent AKI, independently of sex, age, mechanical ventilation necessity, APACHE score, baseline estimated glomerular filtration rate, complete recovery and KDIGO stage. Conclusions: AKI recurred in about 20% of ICU patients after a first episode of sepsis-related AKI. This recurrence increases the mortality rate independently of sepsis severity and of the KDIGO stage of the initial AKI episode. ICU physicians must be aware of the risks related to AKI recurrence while multiple episodes of AKI should be highlighted in electronic medical records and included in the variables of clinical risk scores.