ABCG5/G8 gene is associated with hypercholesterolemias without mutation in candidate genes and non-cholesterol sterols
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AuthorLamiquiz Moneo, Itziar; Baila Rueda, Lucía; Bea, Ana M.; Mateo Gallego, Rocío; Pérez Calahorra, Sofía; Marco Benedí, Victoria; Martín Navarro, Antonio; Ros, Emilio; Cofán, Montserrat; Rodríguez Rey, José Carlos; Pocovi, Miguel; Cenarro, Ana; Civeira, Fernando
Approximately 20% to 40% of clinically defined familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) cases do not show a causative mutation in candidate genes (mutation-negative FH), and some of them may have a polygenic origin.
The aim of this work was to study the prevalence of ABCG5/G8 genetic variants in mutation-negative FH, as defects in these genes relate to intestinal hyperabsorption of cholesterol and thus ABCG5/G8 variants could explain in part the mechanism of hypercholesterolemia.
Design, setting, and patients
We sequenced the ABCG5/G8 genes in 214 mutation-negative FH and 97 controls. Surrogate markers of cholesterol absorption (5?-cholestanol, ?-sitosterol, campesterol, stigmasterol, and sitostanol) were quantified by high-performance liquid chromatography?tandem mass spectrometry in both studied groups.
We found 8 mutation-negative FH patients (3.73%) with a pathogenic mutation in ABCG5/G8 genes. We observed significantly higher concentration of surrogate markers of cholesterol absorption in mutation-negative FH than in controls. In addition, we found significantly higher concentrations of cholesterol absorption markers in mutation-negative FH with ABCG5/G8 defects than in mutation-negative, ABCG5/G8-negative FH. A gene score reflecting the number of common single nucleotide variants associated with hypercholesterolemia was significantly higher in cases than in controls (P = .032). Subjects with a gene score above the mean had significantly higher 5?-cholestanol and stigmasterol than those with a lower gene score.
Mutation-negative FH subjects accumulate an excess of rare and common gene variations in ABCG5/G8 genes. This variation is associated with increased intestinal absorption of cholesterol, as determined by surrogate makers, suggesting that these loci contribute to hypercholesterolemia by enhancing intestinal cholesterol absorption.
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