DNA damage precedes apoptosis during the regression of the interdigital tissue in vertebrate embryos
EstadísticasView Usage Statistics
Full recordShow full item record
AuthorMontero Simón, Juan Antonio; Sánchez Fernández, Cristina; Lorda Diez, Carlos Ignacio; García-Porrero Pérez, Juan Antonio; Hurlé González, Juan Mario
DNA damage independent of caspase activation accompanies programmed cell death in different vertebrate embryonic organs. We analyzed the significance of DNA damage during the regression of the interdigital tissue, which sculpts the digits in the embryonic limb. Interdigit remodeling involves oxidative stress, massive apoptosis and cell senescence. Phosphorylation of H2AX mediated by ATM precedes caspase dependent apoptosis and cell senescence during interdigit regression. The association of ?H2AX with other downstream DNA repair factors, including MDC1, Rad50 and 53BP1 suggests a defensive response of cells against DNA damage. The relative distribution of cells ?H2AX-only positive, TUNEL-only positive, and cells double positive for both markers is consistent with a sequence of degenerative events starting by damage of the DNA. In support of this interpretation, the relative number of ?H2AX-only cells increases after caspase inhibition while the relative number of TUNELonly cells increases after inhibition of ATM. Furthermore, cultured interdigits survived and maintained intense chondrogenic potential, even at advanced stages of degeneration, discarding a previous commitment to die. Our findings support a new biological paradigm considering embryonic cell death secondary to genotoxic stimuli, challenging the idea that considers physiological cell death a cell suicide regulated by an internal death clock that pre-programmes degeneration.