Clinical significance of donor-specific human leukocyte antigen antibodies in liver transplantation
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AuthorCuadrado, Antonio; San Segundo Arribas, David; López Hoyos, Marcos; Crespo García, Javier; Fábrega García, Emilio
Antibody-mediated rejection (AMR) caused by donorspecific anti-human leukocyte antigen antibodies (DSA) is widely accepted to be a risk factor for decreased graft survival after kidney transplantation. This entity also plays a pathogenic role in other solid organ transplants as it appears to be an increasingly common cause of heart graft dysfunction and an emerging issue in lung transplantation. In contrast, the liver appears relatively resistant to DSA-mediated injury. This “immune-tolerance” liver property has been sustained by a low rate of liver graft loss in patients with preformed DSA and by the intrinsic liver characteristics that favor the absorption and elimination of DSA; however, alloantibody-mediated adverse consequences are increasingly being recognized, and several cases of acute AMR after ABO-compatible liver transplant (LT) have been reported. Furthermore, the availability of new solid-phase assays, allowing the detection of low titers of DSA and the refinement of objective diagnostic criteria for AMR in solid organ transplants and particularly in LT, have improved the recognition and management of this entity. A cost-effective strategy of DSA monitoring, avoidance of class ? human leukocyte antigen mismatching, judicious immunosuppression attached to a higher level of clinical suspicion of AMR, particularly in cases unresponsive to conventional antirejection therapy, can allow a rational approach to this threat.