Efficient simulation of solution curves and bifurcation loci in injection-locked oscillators
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A new method is presented for the two-level harmonic-balance analysis of multivalued synchronized solution curves in injection-locked oscillators. The method is based on the extraction of a nonlinear admittance function, which describes the circuit response from the input source terminals. It does not require any optimization or parameter switching procedures, this constituting a significant advantage compared with previous analysis techniques. With additional mathematical conditions, it enables a straightforward determination of the turning point and Hopf bifurcation loci that delimit the stable injection-locked operation bands. The codimension two bifurcation point at which the turning point and Hopf bifurcation loci merge is analyzed in detail, as well as the saddle-connection locus. As it is shown, a second intersection of the saddle-connection locus with the turning point locus acts as a boundary between synchronization points and points associated with jumps and hysteresis. The likely observation of chaotic solutions in the neighborhood of the saddle-connection locus is discussed too. The techniques have been validated by application to several injection-locked oscillators, obtaining good agreement with the experimental results.